Suffixes of this type express how much choice the subject has about the action described or how predisposed the subject is to doing it.

-nIS need

vIleghnIS I need to see him/her (legh see)

bISopnIS you need to eat (Sop eat)

-qang willing

Heghqang he/she is willing to die (Hegh die)

qaja'qang I am willing to tell you (ja' tell)

-rup ready, prepared (referring to beings)

Heghrup he/she is ready to die (Hegh die)

qaleghrup I am ready to see you (legh see)

nuja'rup they are prepared to tell us (ja' tell)

-beH ready, set up (referring to devices)

pojbeH (the device) is set up to analyze it (poj analyze)

labbeH (the device) is ready to transmit data (lab transmit data)

There is, it should be noted, a verb ghuS which means to be prepared to launch or project (something). This verb never takes the suffix -rup. It is used primarily in reference to torpedoes---so much so that if the object is not specifically stated, and context does not dictate otherwise, it is always assumed to be torpedoes. Accordingly, both of the following sentences mean Be prepared to launch torpedoes! or Stand by on torpedoes!

cha yIghuS (cha torpedoes)


The verb ghuS can also be used in reference to, among other things, rockets, missiles, and various kinds of energy beams (which, like torpedoes, go from one point to another). It is also used to describe the action of pulling back the elastic band of a slingshot. In most other instances of preparedness, however, -rup is required.

-vIp afraid

choHoHvlp you are afraid to kill me (HoH kill)

muqIpvIp they are afraid to hit us (qIp hit)

This suffix is rarely used with a prefix meaning I or we. Though it is grammatically correct, it is culturally taboo.