## Klingon Math - Marc Okrand

Maltz also explained how to talk about simple arithmetic functions,
specifically addition, subtraction, multiplication, division. There are several
ways of talking about such things, but the most common involves using the verbs
**boq** "ally with, for an alliance with" and **chen** "take form."

Examples should make the usage of these words clear.

**(a) Addition**

"4 + 3 = 7" would be **wej boq
loS; chen Soch** (literally, "four allies with three; seven forms"). It is also
possible to reverse the two numbers being added: **loS boq wej; chen
Soch**.

Note that in these mathematical constructions, the numbers, even those higher
than "one," are considered singular from a grammatical point of view. One says **wa' boq cha'; chen wej**
"2 + 1 = 3" (two allies with one, three forms"), not **wa' luboq cha'...** That
is, the prefix **lu-**, indicating a third person
plural subject and third person
singular object, is not used. The
subject ("two" in the example) is
considered singular.

**(b) Subtraction**

For subtraction, the suffix **-Ha'** "undo" is attached to **boq** producing **boqHa'**, literally "dis-ally"
or "dissociate from." Thus "4 - 3 = 1" would be **loS boqHa' wej; chen wa'**
(literally, "three dissociates from
four, one forms").

When subtracting, the subject and object cannot be reversed without changing
the equation. **wej
boqHa' loS** would be "3 - 4" and the answer would be a negative number
(a concept Maltz wanted to
postpone for another time).

**(c) Multiplication**

In Klingon, multiplication
involves a number allying with
itself. Thus, the suffix **-'egh** "oneself" is used: **boq'egh** "ally with
oneself." It is the necessary to
specify how many times this alliance
occurs.

For example, "2 x 3 = 6" would be **cha'logh boq'egh wej; chen jav** ("twice,
three allies with itself, six forms"). The multiplier and multiplicand may be
reversed: **wejlogh boq'egh cha'** ("3 x 2,"
"three times, two allies with itself").

**(d) Division**

Paralleling multiplication,
division in Klingon involves a number dissociating from itself a specific number
of times. The verb used is **boqHa''egh** "dis-ally from
oneself, dissociate from oneself,"
containing both **-Ha'** "undo" and
**-'egh** "oneself."

For example, "6 / 3 = 2" is **wejlogh boqHa''egh jav; chen cha'** ("three
times, six dissociates from itself, two forms"). Reversing the dividend and the
divisor changes the equation. **javlogh boqHa''egh
wej** would be "3 / 6" and the answer
would be a fraction (another topic Maltz didn't want to get into).

**(e) Exponents**

For exponents, there is a noun

**qovDa'** for the name of the operation, however the idea of raising a number to the power of something is generally expressed by using the verb

**Sep**. For example "2^3=8" is

**wejlogh Sepâ€™egh cha'; chen chorgh** (" 3 times, 2 breeds with itself, eight forms").